Importance of Software Testing in the IT Industry

Software development companies dedicate a substantial amount of resources and manpower for the development of applications according to requirements specified by enterprises or individuals. However, subsequent to development of such applications/software, companies are required to ensure that such software/applications perform in accordance with the client’s requirements. To ensure that any and all bugs in the software are identified prior to the deployment, various testing procedures are implemented by the IT industry. The importance of this is directly related to the ability of software to measure up to its potential. If the new software is unable to perform the task it was designed for, the client might face severe losses due to stoppage of work and also adversely affect the business of the software development company. The scope of these procedures is to facilitate identification of a problem in the software, fixing of such problems is not within in the scope of software testing. Some of the leading methodologies implemented by companies in the IT industry include General, Load, Functional and Regression Testing.

General Testing

This refers to the general tests carried out on software/applications to ensure the functionality of newly developed software. Some of the common tests included as part of standard Quality Assurance procedures are web performance and usability testing. The web performance testing procedure is mostly engaged in evaluating the online performance of a web-based software application or a website. Usability testing is a mainly subjective approach, which ensures that the software is capable of being utilized effectively in a given set of circumstances. The purpose is to identify the general operating capability of the software/application being tested and to help developers determine some of the areas of improvement for the software. A software development company usually performs general testing of software/applications along with other more advanced methods to ensure that the software conforms to the pre-defined operational capabilities specified by the client/user group.

Load Testing

The load testing procedure simulates operating conditions of the software/application during periods of higher/normal load to gauge the effect of such changes on the functioning of the software/application. This is not the same as stress testing, because load testing checks the operational capabilities in case of both normal load and high load conditions, while stress testing attempts to induce errors in normal operations by using increased system load. This is considered to be a type of non-functional testing, which is undertaken by software development companies to gauge the multi-user support capabilities of the application.

As a commonly employed practice in the software industry, its specific goals are widely disputed and the term is often utilized in conjunctions with volume, reliability, software performance and concurrency testing. By using load testing, developers can attempt to determine the reason for slow performance of software. The common reasons for such slow response commonly include load balancing between multiple servers, client-side processing, network congestion/latency, available database service and/or bugs in the application server(s) or software. The use of load testing is recommended for software/applications, which are subjected to SLA (service level agreement) for ensuring that the software is capable of supporting multiple users. As the procedure simulates an increase in system load by using multiple virtual users, various software are currently available to carry out load testing. Some of the leading load-testing tools used by developers globally are IBM Rational Performance Tester, Apache JMeter, LoadRunner etc. Additionally, a load testing tool commonly favored by software testing companies in India is available as part of the Visual Studio Ultimate Edition of Microsoft.

Functional Testing

This type of testing is a type of black-box testing based on the specifications of the software components being tested. The functions of specific components of the software are feeding inputs and checking the output thus obtained. In functional testing, the internal structure of the program is seldom considered hence, it is classified as a type of black-box testing. The key steps involved in functional testing include identification of functions, which the software is expected to perform, creation of input data according to specifications of the identified functions, determining output based on the specifications of those functions, executing the test scenario followed by comparison of the obtained output vs. the expected output. Functional testing is not the same as system testing as system testing involves validation of a program in comparison to the published system or user requirements, whereas, functional testing is carried out by checking a program with respect to established specifications and available design documents for the software/applications.

Regression Testing

The regression testing refers to any type of software testing, which attempts to identify bugs, which are present in either the functional or the non-functional areas of a system subsequent to making modifications such as configuration and patch changes. The key function of regression testing is to ensure that the use of a patch or upgrade does not lead to the introduction of a new bug into the existing system. Additionally, regression testing helps ensure that the changes in one section of the software do not induce changes in another part of the software’s code. Some of the commonly applied regression testing methods include the use of earlier tests to check for alterations in program operation and the search of any previously fixed bugs, which had re-emerged subsequent to introduction of the new code. Fixed bugs in software often re-emerge and regression testing is one of the leading methods to ensure that such re-emergence is identified and easily controlled before any lasting damage occurs. Software development companies repeatedly perform regression testing of software/applications after any change in coding such as use of patches etc. to ensure that the functionality of the application is unimpaired. Such repetitive testing is usually automated by using an external tool such as Bamboo, TeamCity, Jenkins, Hudson, Tinderbox or BuildBot. This type of testing is generally performed by the QA team in case of leading software development companies, however, smaller companies are often engaged in outsourcing such services to companies specializing in the field of software QA and testing.

What’s Next?

As new technologies emerge, more testing procedures are being developed and implemented by organizations all over the world to ensure that new software perform according to their requirements and specifications even when stress or when additional functionality is introduced into the software. The emerging testing solutions, which are powered by new technology, are designed to reduce the time and resources required for testing in order to streamline the quality control / quality assurance services associated with software development. Some additional types of testing, which are currently used in the software industry are white box testing, system testing, non-functional testing, acceptance testing and integration testing. Each of these testing was developed to identify and resolve application/software limitations in a specific set of conditions; hence they are useful for software testing carried out in case of specific quality assurance and testing procedures.

Why A Mobile App Is Necessary For Your Business

Willing to develop a mobile app for your business but aren’t aware of its exact benefits? By this post, you will come to know about the mobile apps precisely.

Fundamentals of Mobile Application

As we all are aware of the age of smartphones. We cannot imagine a life without a smartphone as it has become an inseparable part of our lives. They come with the pre-loaded features that you can access anytime and anywhere. These are music, games, videos, internet and so on.

With the advancement of the technology, smartphones are also getting smarter day by day. The most important reason why all the features are accessed on a smartphone is it is portable than the PCs and laptops.

It has become an indispensable part of human life, not only limited to define a status symbol but has become a necessity of the time. It has influenced various aspects of human life and businesses are one of them.

As the main goal of a business is to reach to the maximum number of people for attaining a consistent growth by serving them all. Mobile applications are the latest forms to connect with the customers.

Mobile apps are the combination of self-contained programs designed to enhance the functionality of a mobile device.

Due to their advanced functionality and easy accessibility, they are very helpful for the businesses in their growth.

Types of Mobile Apps

Technically, there are two types of mobile apps, that are listed below:

• Native apps

• Hybrid apps

Native apps

These are the apps developed specifically for use on a particular platform. This is a mobile application which is coded in a specific programming language such as Java and Objective-C for android and iOS mobile operating systems respectively.

These apps have fast performance and a high degree of reliability. These can also access the other features of the phones such as Camera, GPS, Contact list and so on. The examples of these apps are Android, iOS, Windows, Symbian, etc.

Hybrid apps

These apps are like native apps and their programs are coded in the container of native apps. Like native apps, they also use the features of the mobile device such as Camera, Contact list and Phone storage, etc.

They also allow cross-platform development such as the same components of a program can be reused on different mobile operating systems.

By the following points, you will come to know how mobile app development service is beneficial for your business:

1. Keeps your Brand Ahead in this Techno-Race

As I have stated above that it is an age of technology and smartphones.

It is the necessity of a business to reach to the maximum number of clients. Therefore, a mobile application will assist a business to reach to its targeted customers in a better and convenient manner.

So, avail the mobile app development service and an assistance of technology to grow your business at its best without putting any extra potential in it.

2. Promotes your Business Indirectly

A mobile app is very helpful in the promotion of a business as it can be easily downloaded and operated as well. If a person finds something interesting and new then he’ll also share it with others. Thus, if your mobile app is user-friendly then the user will surely suggest it to the others.

Hence, your business is getting benefit from the users and it will be an external advertisement of your brand without any charge.

Another reason is, people always prefer the new methods and technologies; these are the newest in the market, thus their chances of preference are more than any other conventional methods.

3. Provides a Better Platform to Reach a Large Chunk of Customers

The number of mobile phone users is more than PC users, therefore if you wish to target them then you must have a mobile application so that they can access your services/products on their mobiles. So, it is a better platform for your business to grow by increasing the number of

customers.

4. Convenient for a Business and its Beneficiaries

Mobile apps not only reduce the effort of customers but also tend them to perform smart work by saving their time as well.

Neither the customer not the business needs to interact with each other and a customer can avail the products/services of a company by ordering it through the mobile app of the same company.

5. Helps in the Improvement of your Business

It is very important to add a feedback form about your services in your business mobile app. By which, the customers can provide their valuable feedback and hence you will come to know about your business drawbacks. Thus, you can improve your services by knowing them. The customers’ feedbacks will help you in improving your business.

Where can you get the quality mobile application development service from?

For getting a quality mobile app development, you will have to hire an expert mobile application development company that can develop a mobile application as per your business requirement.

Take the help of internet and find the top five mobile app development companies nearby you. Contact them and tell them your requirement and ask them whether they can develop a mobile application as per your requirement at an affordable cost or not? If yes, you can go with the same and get a mobile

application for your business betterment.

Software Testing: How Important It Is

A flawed software application can have a huge impact on the developer’s revenue, credibility and reputation in the longer run. So before delivering the software to the client, each company needs to ensure that it is working flawlessly and meeting all requirements or specification of the client. There are many instances when minor flaws in software have resulted in both human and monetary loss. That is why; software testing has already becomes an integral and significant part of the software development life cycle (SDLC).

The agile software development principles further do not consider software development and software testing as two separate processes. The agile methodology emphasizes on the programmers and testers working as a single team, and work together to improve the quality of the software. As an integral part of SDLC, software testing process aims to assess the completeness, correctness and quality of the software before its delivery. At the same time, the test results help businesses to check if the software meets all requirements or specifications of the client.

Why Software Testing is Important for Modern Businesses?

A number of studies have indicated that the cost of fixing bugs in the software increases, if they are not identified and fixed early. When the defects or bugs in the software are detected early, it becomes easier for programmers to eliminate them. That is why; most companies nowadays introduce testing in early phases of SDLC. They further deploy independent QA professionals to assess the software during various stages of development.

Nowadays, IT companies to develop custom and mission-critical software applications. A minor bug in the mission-critical software application can result in both financial and human losses. For instance, a minor flaw in the software used by an aircraft can result in irreparable losses. That is why; the IT company must perform a variety of tests to identify and eliminate all defects, bugs or flaws in the application before it is delivered to the client.

Each modern user has option to choose from thousands of identical software applications. So to keep the users interested and engaged, each enterprise must deliver high quality software. When the software is tested thoroughly and repeatedly, its quality can be assesses more effectively. Based on the test result, the company can launch a high quality product that will stay in the market in the longer run.

Software testing further becomes essential for businesses due to the differences between the development and production environments. While developing the product, programmers focus mainly on its features and functionality. But the features and functionality will have different effect on individual users. When the application is assessed in the testing environment, it becomes easier for QA professionals to assess the user experience accurately. As testing environment and production environment are identical, the performance of the software can be assessed more accurately.

Often clients require developers to include new features in the software during different phases of development. Each time a new feature or functionality is added to the application, the code needs to be tested thoroughly. The QA professionals perform regression testing to ensure that both legacy and new features are working flawlessly. The tests will further help the business to assess the quality of the updated product before it goes live.

The modern websites and web applications must be compatible with multiple operating systems, devices and web browsers. So the enterprises must assess the web application’s performance on various devices, platforms and browsers. The seasoned testers use advanced tools to assess the website’s compatibility across multiple platforms and devices. The test results further help developers to make changes to the code to enhance the website’s compatibility and accessibility.

Many businesses deploy independent QA professionals to protect their goodwill in the competitive market. The online forums and social networks have made it easier for modern users to highlight the defects or flaws in a particular software application. So the enterprise needs to ensure that the end user detects no bugs of flaws. When the software is tested thoroughly, the chances of bugs detected by users are eliminated. Thus, software testing will help developers to impress users and stay in the business over a longer period of time.

How the Internet Is Structured

The term Internet is a contraction of ‘interconnected networks’ and, indeed, the Internet is a gigantic global collection of linked networks. The networks that make up the Internet can range in size from tiny (just two or three connected computers) to massive (thousands of interlinked machines).

An Internet service provider (ISP) is a telecommunications business that delivers Internet-related services such as access to the Internet, domain name registration, website hosting, and so on. ISPs enable you to connect to the Internet.

When you use your computer to access the Internet from your home you most likely connect to an ISP via a modem and a local telephone number or through a dedicated high-speed line. When you connect to your ISP you become part of their network, which allows you to access the Internet.

The computers in the office where you work are likely to be connected together into a network known as a local area network (LAN). This enables the computers in the office to communicate with each other. The LAN is most likely connected to an ISP and this connection enables you to access the Internet from your office computer.

Either way, your home PC or your office LAN becomes part of the ISP’s network. The ISP will link in turn to a larger network to become part of that network. That network will be connected to other larger networks to create a communications system that spans the entire globe.

Thus the Internet is nothing more than a network of networks. These networks connect computers using a wide variety of technologies, including conventional and high-speed telephone lines, fibre-optic cables, microwave links, wireless technologies and satellite communications.

Routers

The networks are connected using routers. A router is a specialised computer that directs traffic on the Internet. As the Internet consists of hundreds of thousands of smaller networks linked together, the use of routers is absolutely necessary.

When you want to visit a particular website, you type the address of the site into your web browser. The address goes to the nearest router and the router decides where that site is on the Internet.

The router also determines the most efficient path through all the networks to reach this destination. This determination is based on the traffic in different parts of the Internet and the available connections.

Higher-level networks

The networks in a particular region may be grouped together into a mid-level network. Or they may be linked in a wide-area network (WAN). A WAN covers a larger geographical area than a mid-level network. If the website you are looking for is within the same regional network or WAN, the router will send it directly to its destination.

However, if the website you are looking for is in another part of the Internet, the router will send your request to a network access point (NAP). NAPs connect high-level networks, ie they allow access to Internet backbones.

The Internet backbones are a collection of networks that link extremely powerful super-computers. The backbones are made up of fibre optic trunk lines (aka OC for optical carrier). The fastest OCs can transit 2.488 gigabits per second!

There are many high-capacity backbones around the world, all interconnected at various NAPs. They enable everyone, no matter where they are, to communicate freely with everyone else on the planet.

Repeaters

As you can see the Internet is a veritable jumble of interconnected networks. These networks are linked using a variety of communication technologies that vary from very slow to ultra-fast. And, given the way that routers decide the most efficient route, your data may circumnavigate the world before reaching its destination.

For example, a request from a surfer in Dublin to view a website hosted in London seldom travels directly from Dublin to London; it is likely to be sent via the Americas should this be the fastest route (as measured in milliseconds).

The problem is that the further data has to travel, the more it deteriorates or fades. Repeaters are pieces of hardware that amplify or refresh the stream of data. Boosting the data signals enables the data to circumnavigate the globe yet arrive intact at its final destination.

Linking networks

In order to connect the various lower order networks which make up the vastness of the Internet, various types of equipment are used. These include bridges, gateways and hubs.

Bridges connect LANs. They enable data from one local area network to pass through another LAN en route to yet another LAN.

Gateways are similar to bridges. However they also translate data from one type of LAN to another. For example, they can translate data from a UNIX system so that it is intelligible on an Intel-based system.

Hubs link groups of networks so that the computers in any of the networks can talk to all the other computers in the other networks.

Servers and clients

All the computers on the Internet are either servers or clients. Servers are machines that provide services to other machines (hence the name).

There are various kinds of servers, each with specific functions. For example, web servers host websites, while email servers send and receive emails. FTP servers (file transfer protocol servers) upload and download files. One server machine may contain software for several service functions.

Clients are computers that are used to connect to servers. For instance, you can connect to any website from your home or office computer. The computer you use is known as a client.

When your client machine connects to a server it will connect with specific server software running on the server. If you are sending an email, for example, your client machine will be talking to the email software on the server.

Free Apps & Software for Non-Profits

So, what is an open source software? You probably already use some of the most popular open source packages without even realizing it.

  • WordPress (blogging and website design)
  • Firefox (internet browser)
  • Android (mobile device operating system)

These are all open source software. OS software developers (aka the copyright holders) make the source code available to anyone to view or edit. The software or app is also free for anyone to use, copy, or give away. OS software is often developed in a public collaboration. For example, if you click on About Firefox in the browser’s Help menu, you will see that the Firefox internet browser “is designed by Mozilla, a global community working to keep the Web open, public and accessible to all.”The idea behind this way of creating software is the theory that programmers, who work for a for-profit business and the business itself, are focusing on protecting their ownership and profit in addition to, or instead of, making the software the highest quality it can be. OS advocates believe that a larger group of programmers, who rely on peers to find and eliminate problems in the code, will create a more useful and higher quality product for everyone.

The big advantage of open source software, of course, is that it’s free. The fact that the code is public means that hundreds or even thousands of programmers and users may test, evaluate, debug, and enhance the app you eventually use. Here are the top 5 reasons open source advocates give for the benefits of open source software, in addition to the zero-dollar price tag:

  • Security: the more people who can see and test a set of code, the more likely security flaws will be found and fixed.
  • Reliability: it’s peer reviewed, with bugs fixed immediately rather than in far-future versions.
  • Identity: it can be customized.
  • Low-resource intensity: open source software can frequently be run on the older computers common in non-profit offices.
  • Freedom of choice: No commitment until you are sure (try as many different packages as you want-they’re free!)

There are downsides, however. The most common, in my experience, is that there probably isn’t a help desk or tech support phone number for users to call. The help desk for an OS software system may be the same blog or website where programmers and testers download code and discuss bugs that they find.Below is a list of some OS apps and software, which many non-profit organizations will find useful. They are all widely used, award-winning packages. Just remember, that doesn’t mean they are all automatically right for YOUR non-profit. Consider who on your staff (whether in-office or consultants) will

  • install the software
  • maintain the software and any data
  • train new users
  • use the software on a regular basis

Consider also whether this software needs to “talk to” other software in your organization. Will the packages be compatible? If you have existing data that will need to be converted to the new package, who will do that?Now that we’ve cautioned you about the risks, here are our favorite open source software packages:

  • LibreOffice: office productivity suite including word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, database, etc. based on, and successor to OpenOffice. Awarded Best Free Office Suite by CNET Magazine
  • GIMP: GNU Image Manipulation Program photo and image editor. Works on GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows, and more. Named a Top Free Software Pick for 2013 by PC Magazine
  • Audacity: digital audio editor created by a professor and a student at Carnegie Mellon University. Chosen as one of PC World Magazine’s 100 Best Products of 2008
  • Shotcut: cross-platform video editor and encoder. Named a TechRadar Download of the Day
  • Thunderbird: email and chat client developed by Mozilla (maker of Firefox). PC World Magazine’s Best 100 Products in 2005 and 2008
  • KeePass: password manager. Recommended password manager by the German Federal Office for Information Security and the French Network and Information Security Agency. KeePass has the highest score in the password management grid of G2 Crowd
  • Rocket.Chat: multi-platform web chat, video conferencing, and team communications. InfoWorld Magazine BOSSIE 2016 Award

One of the biggest non-profit needs is for a constituent relationship management (CRM) system that allows the organization to keep track of donors, prospects, volunteers, and other constituents as well as communications with constituents. Here are the free and open source CRMs you might investigate when it’s time for a new CRM at your non-profit.

  • Suite CRM (formerly Sugar CRM) is one of the most popular, although it is not specific to non-profit
  • CiviCRM has been developed specifically for non-profit organizations

If you want to learn more, many non-profit and charitable organizations promote the open source software movement. Here are a few of the largest and longest-lived:

  • Apache Software Foundation: provides support for the community of Apache open-source software products
  • The Document Foundation: German charitable foundation created by a large group of free software advocates
  • The Eclipse Foundation: an independent non-profit funded by member dues to allow a vendor-neutral and open community to steward the IBM-created Eclipse Project
  • Free Software Foundation: works to ensure freedom for computer users worldwide, particularly by promoting the GNU free operating system
  • Linux Foundation: supports many open source projects, including the 25-year-old Linux operating system
  • OpenCourseWare Consortium: worldwide network of educational institutions, organizations, and people who promote openness in education, including collective development and use of open educational materials
  • OpenHatch: matches prospective open source software programmers with communities, tools, and education
  • OpenSourceMatters: offers financial, legal, and organizational support for the Joomla! content management system for websites
  • Open Source Initiative: represents the open source community, maintains the Open Source Definition, and creates open-source licenses

The label “open source” is said to have been coined at a strategy session held in 1998 shortly after the announcement of the release of the Netscape web browser source code. In the almost 20 years since then, the Free and Open Source Software market and products have matured. Non-profits can take advantage of the high-quality, free* software available for productivity, constituent management, and other essential tasks.

What Is a Software Development Life Cycle?

A set of instructions for the computer to read and understand to perform a specific task is called a Software. Software development is the process to use computer programming to develop a software. This is not new for many, but the topic under consideration will be new for many. SDLC or Software Development Life Cycle, is the process of developing a new software.

The process of developing a software is not difficult to understand. The procedure of SDLC goes like this:

  1. Gathering and then analyzing the requirements to develop a software
  2. Designing of the software
  3. Coding or programming
  4. Testing the software
  5. Deployment
  6. Maintaining the software

Gathering and Then Analyzing the Requirements to Develop a Software

This is the initial phase. Like starting any business, starting to work on a new software requires a plan. The planning phase will include the project managers, stakeholders and even some senior software developers. No matter how professional or for how long the software development company has been operating, the planning is not an easy phase to follow. Although, it would take less time for experts to plan a new project and then to start working on it but still there will be some questions that must always be answered before taking on any project. Following are some questions, which needs answers before taking on the project:

  • Who will be using the software?
  • How they will be using it?
  • What is the required data to input?
  • What will be the output of the input data?
  • What is the purpose?
  • What skills are required?Will there be a need to hire new personnel or the current staff have the right skills and the capacity to work on this new project?

Find their answers. Is the project worth it? A thorough analysis is required here. There will be more questions that need to be answered before taking on this new project. All the work is documented for future reference.

Designing of the Software

Now comes the second phase, the designing of the software. On the basis of the documentation and the results of the first phase, the system and the software is given a design. From this, the developers comes to know the requirements of the hardware and system required to complete their new project. This phase will also define the system architecture. The designing phase will set the requirements for the next phase.

Coding or Programming

Here comes the role of the software developers. The system design documents are now divided into modules and the developers now start their job. This is going to be the longest phase of all. Programming is done here and it’s known to all that programming isn’t an easy job. It needs plenty of time, expertise and patience. Once done, the software developer sends their work to the tester.

Testing the Software

When in the production business, the quality of the product is always monitored and tested. So is the case with a software development. When the coding is done, the software developer sends their work to the Software Quality Assurance department /personnel. They will overlook the work of the software developers. The software quality assurance or the SQA for short will look for bugs and test the software. The test will be made as per the requirements and the guidelines mentioned in the requirements document. Unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing is done by the SQA and if found deviations or errors, it’s sent back to the software developer. The procedures will keeps on repeating themselves until the software is bugs free and ready to deploy.

Deployment of the Software

On successful completion of the software and the testing, it is sent to the concerned client or is available to the public.

Maintaining the Software

Only the non-serious professionals or the ones not willing to carry on their business will not look back to their software but the serious developers will. Every software needs updating and maintenance. Whenever the software encounters some troubles, the software developing company will be there to fix it.

SDLC follows a simple procedure and it doesn’t require you to be a businessperson to know all the phases of SDLC. Every software developer and software developing company knows it all. So when hiring a software developing company you can rest assure that the procedure will be done in a professional way and the best product will be delivered.

Scope of Online Degrees in Computer Sciences

Computer Science is very broad field based on the studies of hardware and software design. Computer science covers different areas of designing, installation and maintenance of complex systems. Major subjects of the computer sciences include computer systems, maintenance of communication network and development of core digital technologies. Areas of specialties include artificial intelligence, computer vision and machine behavior. Basic aim of computer science studies is to investigate algorithms and use of computer systems to solve problems of business and government. Computer science professionals create and maintain most effective computer systems with latest technology. Computer science is one of the rapidly growing industries at present. Many universities offer associate, bachelor, masters and doctorate degrees in computer Sciences.

Major Areas of Specialization

In combination to general subjects universities offers specialization in different areas of computer sciences. These areas include software development, language development and modification, system development, algorithms, hardware maintenance, database systems, numerical analysis and information management.

Skills Earned

Online degrees in computer sciences develop number of specific skills in the students. Some important skills include the following:

o You will be able to create and apply new technology.
o Software design and analysis
o Identification of problems and solution
o Complete multitask with in defined time frame
o You will learn to work independently as well as in teams.
o Also learn how to identify errors and rectify these errors
o You will able to select the correct programming language and hardware systems to complete assigned project.
o You will effectively use operating systems, text editors and compilers in documenting of programs.

Online Degrees Available in Computer Sciences

In addition to degrees offered by traditional universities different top accredited online universities and colleges also offer online degrees in computer sciences. These degrees include Online Associate Degree in Computer Science, Online Bachelor Degree in Computer Science, Online Master Degree in Computer Science and Online PhD Degree in Computer Science. Online education has now become a good option for many people who are not able to join traditional institutes due to some personal and financial reasons. Online Education is also beneficial for working professionals who wants to gain progress in their fields and want to upgrade careers with latest knowledge. Online degrees prove more beneficial if you also join any internship program. You can join different careers after earning online degrees in computer sciences. You can join number of different careers in the field of computer science such as software designing, computer and software sales, programming, computer system development, networking manager, computer hardware professional, computer game development, graphics designer and system manager. These are some examples of opportunities available for computer science degree holders.

Career Path for Online Degrees in Computer Sciences

Computer science consists of theoretical programming and advanced computing solutions. Computer scientists can work in three different areas.

o Computer Scientist design and build software
o Also design useful methods to solve computing problems such as storage of data in databases, transmit data over networks and new methodologies to solve security problems.
o Formulation of new and improved approaches to use

Design and Application of Software

Computer science professionals design software for various purposes including web development, interface design, security issues and mobile computing. Majority of computer science graduates join this career path. Bachelors in computer science provides gateway to enter this field of software designing and its application. Graduates can also continue their education and gain masters degree in computer sciences. You can find jobs in large or small software houses, companies providing computer services and every kind of large organization such as industry, government, banking, healthcare etc.

Develop New Ways to Use Computers

Instead of designing software computer professionals also find new ways to modernize the use of computers. This can achieve by making advancement in computer technology. Computer graduates who are involved in advance graduate work in research university, industrial research and laboratory invent new and improved ways to use computers. The basic aim of such innovations is to simplify the use of computers and computer users can enjoy using computers with new and improved devices and methods. These devices include robotics, computer vision and digital forensics. Dot-com language is the example of such progress in computer sciences.

Discover Effective Ways to Solve Computing Problems

Computing problems can be solved by developing and applying computer science theories and algorithms. Computer science professionals make use of these two i.e. theories and algorithms to discover best possible solution of severe computing problem. To join this field as career students are required to have graduate degree to Ph.D. level with current working experience in a research university, industrial research and development laboratory.

4 Reasons You Need a Mobile Website

Tablet devices like the iPhone, iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tablet and Kindle Fire entered the market a few years ago and triggered off a craze in all parts of the world. Urban consumers gave up their older phones for these ‘smart’ phones. Each new version incorporates the latest technology and brings new features. Studies have forecasted that 70% of Internet users will spend more time on their mobile phones than their desktops and laptops; by 2014, they will access the Internet using some sort of mobile device because this allows them to stay connected wherever they may be. Internet browsing is a totally different experience on a mobile device. If the same website designed for a desktop or laptop is used for mobiles, it doesn’t mean that the user experience will be the same. Here are the top 4 reasons that make a Mobile Website necessary for companies and businesses:

Reason #1 – Screen Size
Smartphones have a much smaller screen size than computers, to allow for portability. The typical resolution of 1280×1024 on a computer is brought down to 480×320 on a mobile device. This often means difficulty in navigating websites that are not compatible with mobile devices. Since traditional desktop websites have a width of 960 pixels, the text in its original format is not legible; zooming in and out, if at all permissible for a particular website, as well as scrolling up and down and back and forth sideways can be frustrating. Simply scaling down the web page content does not always work, because the user’s fingers remain the same size. How often have you pressed the wrong link and had to struggle to navigate back to the original page? A good mobile website will be thumb-friendly, which means the buttons and links will be big enough for the human fingers to navigate properly. A website specifically designed for mobile devices will offer a better customer experience, thereby resulting in increased conversion of sales leads and more revenue.

Reason #2 – Speed
Mobile devices cannot keep up with the processing and Internet date transfer speeds and response times of most computers. Companies tend to overlook this significant fact when they decide to maintain a single website common to both groups of users. A separate website design is required to cater to these lower technical specifications of smartphones, with pictures and video content optimized for these devices. Any webpage that takes more than 10 to 15 seconds to load will lose 95% of its viewers to a faster competitor website. High browsing speeds make customers happy, which will increase the chance of them returning to your website.

Reason #3 – Money
Back in 2009, a staggering total of $1.6 billion dollars was spent on purchasing products over the Internet through mobile devices. Now that more than 93% of adults in the United States own at least one cell phone enabled with Internet access, the online spends from mobile devices would have shot up much higher. Just imagine the sales that a company can generate by tapping into this large market segment. The main objective of a business is to make money; this is done by having a wider customer base. A mobile-enabled website is required to engage, convert and retain a large number of potential customers in today’s times by providing them the information that they need with an ease of navigation. Hence, getting a mobile website is the way to success for any company. The cost of designing a separate website is negligible compared to the profits it can rake in. Yes, every new website needs to be hosted individually, so a separate hosting fee will apply for the traditional website targeted at computer users and the new-age website targeted at users of mobile devices. But this still is a very small overhead cost. What’s more, no special knowledge is required to do so; web design companies can be hired to get the new website up and running in the click of a finger.

Reason #4 – Location
For websites that offer some product or service, mobile users who access its pages are ready to make the purchase or booking immediately in most cases. They may be checking to confirm the exact address. In all probability, they are somewhere close to the physical store or even inside it already! Local searches are gaining popularity, and customers are coming to expect this from companies. Smartphones and tablets are equipped with in-built GPS systems that allow the mobile device to track the user’s exact location. This is used by search engines to pick up companies that match the search criteria and are also within the vicinity of the user at the time of the search. This information is picked up from the company profile registered on a site like Google Places. To exploit this facility, contact details and other location-specific information is of utmost importance for a company’s mobile website. The physical address and telephone number need to be displayed on each and every page, at a prominent location. While heavy images are not encouraged on mobile websites to support faster speeds, maps are highly recommended as they can bring the customers to your premises. Providing a feature to check the available stock at a particular branch of a company is a way of telling the customer that this company means business and is concerned about the customer’s convenience at the same time. The potential customer also needs to know your working hours. He or she wouldn’t like to come all the way and find the store closed. Timing information is also very much needed on a mobile website.

Despite all these wonderful reasons why a mobile website is the need of the hour, a very small number of businesses and companies have actually invested time and money into designing one. It is ironic that industry sectors that could benefit the most from this shift of sales approach have the smallest percentage of mobile-enabled websites. Sadly, they are still relying on their websites made for computers, with the assumption that it suffices if they can be accessed on a mobile device. As we have just seen, nothing could be further from the truth. These are only a few of the reasons to have a mobile website. With the way technology is moving you cannot afford not to have a website that was specifically designed for mobile devices.

So what do mobile users look for in a website that is different from desktop users?

The percentage of web searches made from mobile devices is increasing exponentially. Mobile users access the Internet on the go; they type in search queries and expect real-time results based on their current location. They use words like “nearest” in their search string instead of typing in their actual geographical location. The device is expected to pick up that information. These users expect a comfortable navigation from a website, with a user-friendly interface. If one website does not offer the expected speed and convenience of visibility, there are other sites to hop on to, which can cause a potential loss of customer and cost business. This can impact the way all businesses function, so they need to keep up with the changing trends and get a mobile website. Quality of service has no meaning if the exposure is not right.

The charm of fancy websites with a lot of Flash animation and creative designs are lost on the small screens of these hand-held gadgets; efficiency is given priority over these bells and whistles. Some smartphones may not even support Flash, while those that do will take a long time downloading them. Time is valuable to people on the go, and they’re already onto the next website that is compatible with their device and quickly gives them the information they are looking for. Customer reviews are also important to mobile users. They would like to know what other people think of a product or service and their experience with a particular company. Having a mobile website integrated with social networking media serves as a great marketing tool and increases exposure to target customers.

The present generation of customers has developed a culture of living for now. Everything is preferred fast, and any business that cannot keep pace is left behind. It is imperative to change the business strategy and become mobile-ready before your competitors, or at least catch up with them. If you are hesitant to adapt the latest technologies, your business might just have to shut down. Instead, get a mobile website today, which will be highly beneficial to increasing your sales revenue. It doesn’t have to end there; with so many possibilities, you need to think out of the box. For example, once you get a mobile-enabled website, how will your users know about it? Advertise in all media, but also put a site redirect in place, which will bring them from the desktop version to the new mobile-friendly version. Of course, they need the option of going back if they wish. So what are you waiting for? Get onto the mobile bandwagon today.

Internet Marketing – How to Start As a Beginner

Internet marketing is like every other businesses, except that internet marketing is done strictly online without need for any physical transactions or physical contacts with buyers.

As the internet marketing business is now thriving like never before, more people wish to establish them themselves in this business. Internet marketing involves the buying, selling and distribution of a product or service on the Internet. Internet marketing has, over the years, become one of the most dynamic and fastest growing businesses throughout the world. The main reason for this growth is its availability in the world to millions (if not billions) of people. It is not easy to learn the basics of Internet marketing. However, it is also not beyond the beginners’ ability to learn rapidly: anyone with passion to do successful business on the internet can do this.

Basically, there are four areas we need to look at:

Website Design

Designing a website is one of the basic skills you must possess before becoming an internet marketer. It used to be a requirement to have knowledge of HTML, CSS, XML, and other web design software languages. If you do possess these skills, you are be able to create websites according to your precise specifications. Apart from having these skills, you can join a website design platform (of which there are too many to go into here). These often have “drag and drop” templates. This will allow you to put up a very attractive website in almost no time at all.

These website templates are straight forward, and most have been designed for people who do not have the technical “computer language” skills to do their own programming. If the design of a website is not something you are good at, you can hire a good web designer to do the job for you.

Software Development

The development of software is another category in Internet marketing business. In this category, you develop a tool (or software) according to a customers’ specifications and preferences. This is a difficult task because it requires complex inputs (and something simple like a single comma instead of a period will actually stop the software from working)!

Development of websites is an easier skill to master than this. Some blog or website owners do require the service of software/apps developers from time to time. If you have this type of skill set, you can make good money by offering this service to customers across the globe. Such development may also include setting up the contents of websites, helping people with affiliate marketing, blogging, etc.

Advertising of Products or Services

This is arguably the easiest of all internet marketing techniques. Advertising uses techniques such as search engine optimization, as well as the use of popular blogs/websites to improve ad visibility. The ads are usually posted on websites that have greater use and get a lot of traffic. Examples of advertisements are visible on both Google and Facebook.

The skills to do this are easy to learn and even easier to set up. This type of marketing is preferred by many internet marketers over the website design and software development styles of marketing.

Truly, all you need do is learn how to set up a blog or website and begin to send traffic to it. Once you begin to receive a substantial amount of traffic, you apply to an Ads Company to advertise on your website. Google AdSense, Facebook ads, and propeller ads, are good examples for you to look into. Search engine optimization and the placement of banner ads are excellent examples of internet advertising.

Selling of Products and Services

Probably the largest and most popular way to begin a career in Internet Marketing is by selling a product or service. Selling on the Internet is the most searchable opportunity and is a precondition for any internet marketing business. Most direct sales companies are now tending towards using the Internet as well. You will find that the majority of my articles, blog posts and YouTube videos are centered around this niche of Internet Marketing.

Although there are many, many marketers in this niche (and you may think there is “too much competition”- but you would be wrong!) the opportunities are truly endless. Selling products or services is basically a strategy that can reach a larger audience with fewer expenses.

Sales are made using email marketing, social media and websites. The method of selling depends on the company and the type of business or products you are trying to sell, as well as different methods of approaching your prospective clients. You can sign up to offer products through one of the auction sites on the internet (such as Amazon or E-bay) and earn smaller commissions with less overhead. Or, you can offer products directly and cut out the middle man! You can develop your own products very easily and keep all the profits. Or sign up affiliates to market and sell your products for you and pay them a commission and you keep the profits from that.

Transportation Services and Modes of Transport

In human evolution, the earliest means of transport were walking, running and swimming. Before the Industrial Revolution and modernization, water transport was the most efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods over long distances though it was very slow and expensive. The importance of water transport led to the growth of cities along rivers and sea-shores where boats, canoes and ships could dock.

The domestication of animals and the invention of the sled gave way to early animal transport services. Horses and oxen were used from as early as 3000 BC to transport goods and humans and traveled over dirt tracks. Later civilizations such as the Mesopotamian and the Indus Valley built paved roads for easier transport.

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century turned transportation on its head. It was the age of many inventions that fundamentally changed the concept of transport. Communication, telegraphy, the steam engine and the steam ship sped global transport in all directions. Land transport became possible over large distances without the application of animal or human muscles. The Wright brothers’ successful experiments with aircraft paved the way for airplanes and air transport became a faster way to transport goods and people in shorter time-frames to further destinations.

Modes of transport

A ‘mode of transport’ is a method or solution that uses a particular type of infrastructure, operation and vehicle to transport people and cargo. A mode can be used by itself or in conjunction with several other modes; in this case it is referred to ‘intermodal’ or ‘multimodal’ transport. Each is distinct from the other and is used based on choice of factors like cost of transport, route taken, capability and so on.

1. Human-powered – this is the most common in developing and under-developed countries because of several factors like savings on cost, accessibility of location, physical exercise and environmental reasons. Human-powered transport is a sustainable form of transport and has recently been enhanced by the use of machinery and modern technology – e.g. cycling, skating, rowing, skiing which are extremely useful in difficult environments.

2. Animal-powered – whether ridden by humans or used as pack animals for movement of people and commodities, animals can work alone or in teams – e.g. mules, horse-carts, dog-sleds etc.

3. Air – airplanes and aircraft have reduced travel times considerably and is the fastest mode of passenger and goods transport. High costs and high energy use are the downsides of air transport; however, it is estimated that over 500,000 people travel in aero-planes at any given time.

4. Rail – Railroads and rail tracks run the length and breadth of every country in the world ferrying people and goods from place to place. Although they involve the use of large amounts of surface land, rail networks provide easy connectivity options within cities, within countries and between different countries as a mode of public transport- e.g. New York City Subway, London Metro, Eurotunnel or the Chunnel between England and France and the Euro Rail.

5. Road – road networks pass through cities, towns and villages and provide better connectivity options in addition to city rail networks and are ideal for public transport also. Road transport is entirely different from other modes as it allows a vehicle user to have complete freedom over speed, direction, timings of travel and change of location that other transport methods cannot provide. They require large surface areas, use high energy and are quite expensive.

6. Water – water transport includes barges, boats, sailboats and ships through canals, rivers and seas. The earliest boats and ships were routed through inland canals for transporting people and spices. Today large passenger and cargo ships provide an organized and efficient transportation method. Although the time involved is long, water transportation is significantly less expensive than air or road.

Other less used modes include cable and pipeline transports which are specifically purpose oriented – e.g. liquids and gases, water, sewage etc. for pipeline transport and conveyor belts, aerial tramways, cable cars etc. for cable transport.

All transport services involve three common elements – infrastructure such as terminals and facilities, operations that include government and private agencies and vehicles which are specifically made for the purpose.